Editing and Revision

In this article, I’ll talk about editing and revision of your thesis, masters project of project proposal on a global level.

When we edit and revise a Kenyan essay globally, we focus on the issues that require us to see the bigger picture. This can mean looking at the entire essay or some parts of it. For example, a section, subsection, or paragraph. The emphasis is on issues such as the thesis or focus of the essay, the target audience, the overall structure and organization of the essay, and the development of ideas and argumentation.

Problems in these areas are tricky as they may require major rewriting. Checking for the Kenyan thesis, or focus of the Kenyan research paper means that you try to locate the sentence or sentences where you tell the reader what the goal of the essay is going to be or what the point is that you’re trying to prove. Your audience should be able this information in the introduction to your essay.

It’s often helpful to take a highlighter pen and highlight these sentences so that you can see them clearly. If you can’t find anything to highlight then the reader won’t be able to see either what the focus of the essay is meant to be. To avoid this, you need to revise the introductory section or paragraph so it contains a clearly stated thesis. Once you’ve checked for the thesis of focus and are confident that this information is clearly stated, you need to check the contents of the rest of the essay. You can start by thinking about your target audience and what they already know or perhaps, don’t know about the topic.

Information that you can expect the target audience to already know doesn’t need to be discussed in detail. So, if you find chunks of text in the essay that you think the audience is already familiar with, this can be background information or definitions of terms for example. You’ll need to think of ways to cut down or even delete these chunks altogether. Information that’s new to the target audience should be spelt out in some detail of course. And you should also aim give references to previous work. This means that you need to look for places in the essay where you need to be more specific or way you may need to give more motivations and even add more examples that illustrate the point that you’re trying to make.

The next thing to do when you edit globally is check if all the ideas discussed in the essay are related to the thesis or the focus that you just highlighted. And if they serve as evidence for the thesis in the right sort of way. A good way to check for this is to write a one-sentence description of each section or paragraph that follows the introductory section. and ask what the connection between these one-sentence descriptions and the highlighted sentences really is. If the connection isn’t immediately obvious to you, then again it won’t be clear to your reader either.

In that case, you’ll need to rewrite these to make the connection clearer. Sometimes it helps to just add transitional expressions. These are small words and phrases like however, on the contrary, in addition, consequently, therefore, on the other hand, and so on, that serve the assigned pace to help the reader interpret the information in the right sort of way.

If you can’t see any connection between the one-sentence descriptions and the highlighted sentences, even after you’ve tried to clarify this by rewriting the text or by adding signpost I just talked about. You’ll need to decide if the information should be present in the essay at all or if you should just delete it. Sometimes actually deleting is the best option however brutal that may feel. By the way, when I say delete, you should note, of course, you should never delete anything completely before you finish the essay. I, for example, always have a separate document called, bits and pieces from section one, section two, or something like that, where I move all the chunks I’ve just deleted in case I need them later on after all. Sometimes, instead of actually re-writing anything, you might also try to move around the text, so the ideas you discuss start to follow each other more naturally. And the connection they have to the thesis or focus of the essay becomes clearer.

Again, it’s a good idea to look at the one-sentence descriptions that you’ve written of the sections or paragraphs and ask if the ordering which you present the information actually makes sense to you. Or maybe you can think of a better way to structure the discussion. Is it really the best way to structure the discussion around the general to the specific pattern for example, or would it make more sense to present the information in some other order? You should also look for places where you might just repeat the same thing several times, and decide if the repetition is really necessary, or if it just confuses the reader and takes up a lot of space.

Repetition and references to something that you said earlier can serve as signposts to help the reader see how things are related and what’s connected to what. But there’s a difference between this and just saying the same thing several times in a number of different places. One final thing you need to consider when editing and revising an essay globally, is if you’ve paid enough attention to the counter-arguments that target readers might have and try to either to refute or concede to these in the right sort of way. This is important to do as it shows that you know the topic well enough to be able to think of alternatives solutions and be able to identify the possible strength and weaknesses of these.

The goal of global editing and revision is to produce a text with all the ideas and information clearly contribute to the essay’s thesis. We also want the text to provide enough evidence for the claims that we make and want the discussion to proceed in an organized and logical manner, so the target reader is able to see what is connected to what, what follows from what, and where the discussion is heading at all times. It’s also important to make sure there are no major flaws in argumentation. You don’t, for example, want to contradict yourself anywhere and you don’t want to fall subject to any of the common informal fallacies. These are common errors in reasoning. For example, assuming a false cause and effect relationship, while basing claims on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence.

For assistance in editing or rewriting your academic work, don’t hesitate to call us.